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Some problems about trenchless directional drilling through construction
Trenchlesslayingundergroundpipelinedirectionaldrillingcrossingtechnologyreferstotheuseofdrillingmeansnotexcavatedintheearth'ssurface,undergroundpipelineconstructiontechnology.Energy,communicationsandtrenchlesstechnologyinourcountrycitymunicipalengineeringconstruction,theapplicationofmoreandmorewidely,especiallyinnaturalgas,oil,electricity,water,Piperoofsupportinsuchaspectsaslevelprecipitationandgetverygoodapplications.Environmentalprotectionandshortconstructionperiodhasbeenrecognizedbythemarket.Belowsmallmakeupofthethreemajortechnicalproblemsencounteredintheprocessandwediscussthemtogether. Guidanceofhardsoillayer,sandlayerandpebblelayer Navigationbitselection Beforechoosingaguidebit,onemustfirstunderstandthegeologicalconditionsofsurroundingstrata.Manyconstructionunitsdonotadoptgeologicaldrillingbeforelayingpipesforsmalldirectionaldrilling.Theycanonlyaccumulatesomedatainthisareaforreferenceforalongtime.Whenunderstandingisthemainsoftstratumonthelocation,thenUSEStheguideboardfacelargerguidebit,tocontrolthenavigationdirectionassoonaspossible,whenknowtheconstructionperiodismainlysand,pebblesandhardformationshoulduseduck-billed,smallsurfaceareaofguidebitandweldingonacertainquantityofalloyplate,andweldingbladeAnglecan'ttoolonginordertoprotectthenavigationofbitwear,makeitthroughhardstrata,sandandpebblebed. Bootoperationskills Whenguidebitthroughsandandpebblelayerandhardformation,wanttochangethedirectionofthetrajectory,ifgearedtojacking,canproducepipebendingandguidebitoutletplug,etc.,accordingtotheworkexperience,andturnheadbacktotheoperatingmethodshouldbeadopted,forexampletodirectionup,thentheoperatorshallfeedcontrolofjackingforceinpipetobebent,controlreturnedtothehands,withanotherhandtoguidebitbearingbetween11-1direction,toguidebitturnaroundinthisinterval,makeitsslowdrillingbuttheeffectisverygood,thismethodmustpayattentiontothepreparationofthemud,specialsandandpebbleintoahole,Theholewallshallbeprotectedbyalargeproportionofmud.Theholewallofhardsoillayerhasasmallclearancewiththeouterdiameteroftheguidebit.Therockshallbedischargedoutoftheholeintimetopreventtheguidebitanddrillpipefrombeinglocked. Problemsinreaming reducing Softsoilreaming,pronetoreducingphenomenon,onthesurface:unloadingdrillpipe,mudholethroughdrillpipeflowbackpressure,holewithreducingphenomenon,atthispoint,thereamerbitbacktopullhard,mechanicalload,operationisnotcarrieddrillingaccidentmaybeproducedatthetime,atthistimeofSiZuanShouoperationshouldbeadoptedwhenlightslowturning,instrumentdial,pegoperationaccordingtothecircumstance,beabouttochoosesolidmudmuddivision,andprotectingtheholepressurebalance,keepporeforming. Slumpinghole Sandclaylayer,sandlayer,loosebackfilllayerreamingeasytocollapsehole,drilling,drilling,seriouscracksmayappearontheroadsurfacesubsidence.Solid-phasemud,heavy-gelsolid-phasemudwallprotection.Caneffectivelypreventcollapsehole.Ifslumpingholestoneaccumulationplace,onlyclearthestonemaycontinuetoenlargehole,atthistimeofSiZuanShouoperationmethodis:gentlypullslowlyturn,paycloseattentiontotheinstrumentdial,stayreamingbyslumpinghole,drillbit,backwardtoexpandingonceormanytimes,untiltheholeisatnormaltorque,suchasthebackofthefoundastoneinthedrillbitwillworktowardthetailpittotakeoutthestonescanbeused. Mudleakageornon-grout Inloosebackfillsoil,undergroundwaterlevelislow,sandyclay,sandbed,thebottomlayerofsoftsoilreaming,mudisnotoutoftheorificetoreturn,butfromtheholeleakage,SiZuanShouatthistimetoproperlycontroltheamountofmudpump,muddivisionwillmodulation:increasestheslurryconcentrationandviscosity,formedintheholewallmudleakageresistanceofskin,effectivelypreventleakageofmud,whencrossingtheriver,mudlossseriouscanbecementorflyashareaddedintothemudtocontroltheleakage. Intheprocessofreamingortowingpipelaying,thecommonmudseepsoutfromtheholetotheground.Thereasonsformudseepageareasfollows:firstly,theresidualmudintheholereamingandpipelayingblocksthedrillingholesomuchthatthemudcannotreturnfromtheorifice,andthemudformsahigh-pressuresurfaceintheholeandseepsoutfromtheground;Second,thelocallayerisloosetoleavethemudchannel,themudalongitschannelseepageground. Ingeneral,mudseepagefromthegroundhaslittleimpactonpipelinelaying,butmudseepageshouldbecontrolledundercertaincircumstances.Suchas:mudisnotallowedtooozefromthehousesofresidents,notfromthedowntownseepage,notfromfish,shrimppondseepage,topreventtheleakageofmudmeasuresistoincreasethedepthofdrilling;Thesecondistochangethestructureofthedrillbit,usingvanetype,chutetypedrillbit,asfaraspossiblemuddebrisintomud;Third,thedriller,mudistocontrolthemudconcentration,viscosity,flowrate,increasethemudwallprotection,suspensionandchipremovalability,soastoformacompletedrillinghole,channelmudunimpededreturnfromtheorifice. Theabovearecommonproblemsincomplexstrata.Thekeytothislinkisthatthedrillerandthemudengineershouldcommunicateintimeandadoptreasonableoperationmethodsandeffectivemudallocationtocompletethisprocesssmoothly. Problemsinthedrawingtube Mainproblemsinpipedrawinginclude: 1.Equipmentfailurereasons,delayinthebesttimetopullthepipe
2018-12-17
Construction principle of horizontal directional drilling machine (HDD)
Draw pipe video for horizontal directional drill without excavation
Horizontal directional drilling, mud configuration
Horizontaldirectionaldrillinghasbeenwidelyusedinmunicipalandcommunicationpipelinecrossing.Thesizeoftheholeisgettingbiggerandbigger,thelengthofthecrossingisgettinglongerandlonger,andmoreandmoregeologicalconditionsarebeingdrilled.Drillingholeformationrateandholestabilityonthequalityofmudconfigurationrequirementsaregettinghigherandhigher.Theadaptabilityofmudconfigurationinhorizontaldrillingisanalyzedindetailinthispaper. Mudclassificationandperformance 1.1classification Chinaisrichinbentonitemineralresources,includingcalciumbentonite,sodiumbentonite,hydrogenbentonite,aluminumbentonite,sodiumcalciumbentoniteandunclassifiedbentonite.Bentonite,alsoknownasBentoniterock,isaclayrockwithmontmorillonite(alsoknownasmicrocrystallinekaoliniteandjiaolinite)asthemaincomponent--montmorilloniteclayrock,whichoftencontainsasmallamountofillite,kaoliniteandzeolite,feldsparandcalcite.Montmorilloniteisanaqueousaluminosilicatemineralcontainingasmallamountofalkaliandalkalineearthmetals.ItschemicalformulaisNax(H2O)4{(Al2~xMg0.)[Si4O10](OH)2}.Duetotheexistenceofinterlayerwaterandinterlayerexchangeablecationinmontmorillonite,bentonitecanbedividedintosodiumbentonite(alkalinesoil),calciumbentonite(alkalinesoil)andnaturalbleachedsoil(acidicsoil)accordingtothetypes,contentandcrystallinechemicalpropertiesofexchangeablecationcontainedinmontmorillonite.Thecalciumbentoniteincludescalciumsodiumbentonite,calciummagnesiumbentoniteandsoon.ThemainexchangecationofalkalinesoilisNa+(andK+),thebasiccoefficientisgreaterthanorequalto1,themainexchangecationofalkalinesoilisCa2+,Na+orCa2+,Mg2+,etc.,thebasiccoefficientislessthan1,themainexchangecationofacidicsoilisH+(Al3+). 1.2performance 1)physicalproperties Bentoniteisgenerallywhite,lightyellow,becauseitsironcontentisdifferentandlightgray,lightgreenpink,brownred,blackmiscellaneouscolor.Bentoniteiseitherlooseassoilordenseandhard. 2)chemicalcomposition Themainchemicalcomponentsofbentonitearesilica(SiO2),alumina(Al2O3)andwater(H2O).Ironoxideandmagnesiumoxidecontentissometimeshigher,calcium,sodium,potassiumandsoonoftenexistindifferentcontentinbentonite.ThecontentofNa2OandCaOinbentonitehasgreatinfluenceonthephysicalandchemicalpropertiesandtechnologicalpropertiesofbentonite. 3)physicalandchemicalproperties Bentonitehasastronghygroscopicity,afterwaterabsorptionexpansion,expansionnumbercanreach30times.Colloidalsuspensioncanbedispersedinwatermedium,whichhascertainviscosity,thixotropyandlubricity.Ithasplasticityandadhesionwithadmixturesofwater,mudorsandandotherfineclasticmaterials.Ithasstrongcationicexchangecapacity.Ithasacertainadsorptioncapacityforvariousgases,liquidsandorganicsubstances,withthemaximumadsorptioncapacityupto5timesitsweight.Acidbleachingsoilwithsurfaceactivitycanabsorbcoloredsubstances. Thephysicalandchemicalpropertiesofbentonitemainlydependonthetypeandcontentofmontmorillonite.Thephysicalandchemicalpropertiesandtechnicalpropertiesofsodiumbentonitearesuperiortothoseofcalciumormagnesiumbentonite.Themainperformanceis:thewaterabsorptionspeedisslow,butthewaterabsorptionrateandexpansionmultiplearelarge;Highcationexchangecapacity;Gooddispersionandhighgelatinousvalueinwatermedium;Itscolloidalsuspensionthixotropy,viscosity,lubricity,highPHvalue;Goodthermalstability;Ithashighplasticityandstrongadhesion.Highthermalandwettensilestrengthanddrycompressionstrength.Therefore,theapplicationvalueandeconomicvalueofsodiumbentonitearerelativelyhigh. Inspectionmethodofmud Densityscaleisthemostcommonlyusedinstrumentformuddensitymeasurement.Whenmeasuring,fillthemudcupwithmud,andmaketheexcessmudoverflowfromthecenterholeofthelidaftercapping.Afterdryingthesurfaceofthemud-cup,placetheleveronthebracket(themainbladeisseatedonthemainbladecushion).Movethegamecodesothattheleverishorizontal(thehorizontalbubbleisinthecenter).Readthescaleontheleftsideofthetravelcode,thatis,themuddensityvalue.Calibratetheinstrumentwithcleanwaterbeforemeasuringmuddensity.Ifthereadingisnotat1.0,themetalparticlesinthesmallboxattherightendofthelevercanbeaddedordecreasedtoadjust. Muddensityistheratiooftheweightofmudtotheweightofthespecifiedvolumeofwater.Thesizeofmuddensitymeasuredintheconstructionsitemainlydependsonthesumoftheweightofslurryclayanddrillingcuttings.Whenthereareadmixturesandothersubstancestoadd,admixturesandotherweightmustbeaccountedfor. Applicationandinfluenceofmudindifferentgeologicalconditions Drillinginsandlayer,gravel,pebbleandbrokenzoneformationisverydifficultbecauseofthelackofcementationbetweenparticlesandtheholewalliseasytocollapseduringdrilling.Forthiskindofstratum,thekeytosolvetheproblemistoincreasethecementingforcebetweentheporewallparticles.Thecementingforcebetweensandandgravelcanbeobviouslyenhancedbyproperinfiltrationofviscousmudintothestratumofporewall,soastoenhancethestabilityofporewall.Improvingtheviscosityofmudismainlyachievedbyusinghighlydispersivemud(finedispersivemud),increasingtheclaycontentinmud,addingorganicorinorganicviscosifierandothermeasures.Finedispersiblemudisadispersiblemudwithsalinitylessthan1%,calciumcontentlesst
2018-12-17
Non-excavation drilling guidance technology in rock strata
Thetechnologyoflayingundergroundpipelineintrenchlessconstructioniswidelyusedbecauseofitslowdamagetosurfacestructure,goodenvironmentalprotection,highconstructionefficiencyandlowoverallcost.AlthoughChina'sdevelopmentlevelinthisfieldismorethantenyearslaterthanthatofdevelopedcountries,withthecontinuousdevelopmentofeconomicconstruction,theimplementationofthestrategyofwesterndevelopmentandtheaccelerationofurbanizationconstruction,thetrenchlessmarketisgrowingvigorously.Understandingandmasteringtheadvancedtechnologyoftrenchlessindustryishelpfultotheimprovementofourcountry.Thispaperintroducesthetechniqueofnon-excavationguideddrillinginrockstrata. 1.Drillingguidingmechanisminsoillayer Ingeneral,theconstructionofnon-excavationguideddrillingismostlycarriedoutundertheconditionofsoillayer.Atthistime,theguidebitadoptstheasymmetricstructurewithinclinedplane.Themechanicalmechanismofdirectionalchangeofthiskindofbitintheholeisthatthethrustobtainedfromthedrillpipeovercomestheformationresistanceandpushesthebitforward.Takingtheinclineddrillbitastheanalysisobject,thedrillthrustandformationresistancefromthedrillpipeactonthedrillbitinclinedsurfacetogether.Thetwoforcesarerespectivelydecomposedintothecomponentforceperpendiculartotheinclinedsurfaceandthecomponentforceparalleltotheinclinedsurface.Thetwocomponentforcesparalleltotheinclinedplanearelargerthantheformationresistancecomponent,andthefinalresultantforcepointsinthedirectionoftheinclinedplane,makingthedrillbitadvancealongtheinclinedplane.Theconcreteoperationisshownasfollows:whentherotaryactionofthedrillandthefeedingactionarecarriedoutsimultaneously,thedrillingtrackpresentsastraightline;Whenthedrillingmachineonlyfeedswithoutturning,thedrillingtrackturnsalongtheinclinedsurfaceofthedrillbittorealizethedirectionchange. However,whenthestratadrilledarerockstrata,thethrustofthedrillingmachinecannoteffectivelyovercometheformationresistance,soitisimpossibletoachievethefunctionofonlypushingwithoutturningandchangingdirection.Evenifdrillingonlyinthepebblelayerortherock-bearingsoillayer,thepresenceofhardrockwillcauseunevenforceonthedrillbitoftheguideplateinsidethehole,anditisdifficulttoachieveeffectivedirectioncontrol. 2.Guidingtechnologyinrockstrata 2.1traditionalmethod1 WhenIcouldn'tturncan'tuseonlyinstratamethodtochangethedrillingdirection,ingeneral,itisordinarytypecuttingbevelgrindingdrillbit(guideplate)witheccentricorsingleconebit,thenifyouwanttochangethedirectionofboreholetrajectory,ejectorandintermittentrotaryfunctionatthesametime,thedefaultisdisplayedonguidanceinstrumentdialdirectionturningpointoneachsideejectorandturning60degreessectorscope,implementation,eccentricgrindingateachpointoftherestofthedialindicatorisidleinthepast.Forexample,tochangethedirectionofthedrillingtracktowardthe12o'clockpositionindicatedbytheclockface(upward),theeccentricbitisidledto10o'clock,thrustisapplied,andpushedto2o'clocktoforma120degreefanfacegrinding.Thenpullthedrillbitbackslightlytobreakawayfromthecuttingsurface,idlingto10o'clockposition,applyingthrustandpushingto2o'clockpositiontoachieveanothergrindingofthefanfaceof120degrees.Inthisway,pushrotationandidlerotationarecarriedoutrepeatedlytomakethedrillingtrackdeviatefromtheoriginalaxisandtiltupwardbyanAngletorealizetheturning. Thiskindofconstructiontechnologycanonlyintermittentlygramrock,andthiskindofpushingandidlingconversionoperationneedstobemanuallycarriedout,sothattheguidanceefficiencyisverylow,changethedirectionofafewhours.Sometimesitisimpossibletoachieveeffectivedirectioncontrolinfracturedorpebbleformationsbecauseoftheinhomogeneity. 2.2traditionalmethodii Anothertraditionalrockdrillingtechnologyistheholebottommudmotors,thisprocessundertheconditionofturning,drillingmudmotorbydrillpipeinnercavitytransmissiontodrivethehighpressuremud,providetherollerbit,takerequiredtorque,rockdrillpipedon'tneedtoturn,onlyprovidethrustanddrillingdirectioncontrol,mudmotorandafittedbetweenthedrillpipeaxisAngle,inordertorealizethedirectionchange;Whendrillingstraightholes,thedrillpipeandthemudmotorrotatesimultaneously.Whenusingthisprocessforconstruction,therearethefollowingproblems: (1)themachineshallbeequippedwithhighpressureandhighflowmudpumptoensurethatenoughmudispumpedtodrivethemudmotortowork.ExistingmudpumpsofordinarydrillingRIGSaredifficulttomeettherequirements; (2)themudconsumptionis2-3timeslargerthanthatofordinarydrilling,whichgreatlyincreasesthecostofmudmaterialconsumption; (3)specialhigh-powermudmixingsystemshouldbeequippedtomeettheneedsofalargeamountofmud; (4)fromtheperspectiveofenvironmentalprotection,especiallyinurbanconstruction,alargeamountofwasteslurryneedstobedisposedof,whichincreasestheconstructioncost; (5)inordertomakethemudpowerreachthemudmotorpartseffectively,thesealingrequirementsandhighpressurescourresistancerequirementsofeachconnectionofdrillpipestringarefurtherimproved; (6)morethan1mmudmotorwasaddedbetweentheprobeholdingpipeandtheguidingbit,whichaffectedthedirectionalaccuracyofthedrillingtrack. ThetraditionalmethodalsoUSESthepneumaticsubsurfaceholeh
2018-12-17
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